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Release Notes

What's new in DFX 0.13.1

We have moved release notes to github releases. Please see dfx 0.13.1 release notes there.

What's new in DFX 0.12.1


fix: no longer shrinks custom canisters by default



Updated replica to elected commit dcbf401f27d9b48354e68389c6d8293c4233b055. This incorporates the following executed proposals:

Frontend canister

What's new in DFX 0.12.0


feat(frontend-canister): add warning if config is provided in .ic-assets.json but not used

fix(frontend-canister): Allow overwriting default HTTP Headers for assets in frontend canister

Allows to overwrite Content-Type, Content-Encoding, and Cache-Control HTTP headers with custom values via .ic-assets.json5 config file. Example .ic-assets.json5 file:

"match": "",
"headers": {
"Content-Type": "application/octet-stream",
"Content-Encoding": "gzip"

This change will trigger the update process for frontend canister (new module hash: 2ff0513123f11c57716d889ca487083fac7d94a4c9434d5879f8d0342ad9d759).

feat: warn if an unencrypted identity is used on mainnet

fix: Save SNS canister IDs

SNS canister IDs were not being parsed reliably. Now the candid file is being specified explicitly, which resolves the issue in at least some cases.

feat: NNS usability improvements

The command line interface for nns commands has been updated to:

  • Give better help when the subnet type is incorrect
  • Not offer --network as a flag given that it is unused
  • List nns subcommands

feat: -y flag for canister installation

dfx canister install and dfx deploy now have a -y flag that will automatically confirm any y/n checks made during canister installation.

fix: Compute Motoko dependencies in linear (not exponential) time by detecting visited imports.

fix(generate): add missing typescript types and fix issues with bindings array in dfx.json

chore: update Candid UI canister with commit 79d55e7f568aec00e16dd0329926cc7ea8e3a28b

refactor: Factor out code for calling arbitrary bundled binaries

The function for calling sns can now call any bundled binary.

docs: Document dfx nns subcommands

dfx nns commands are used to deploy and manage local NNS canisters, such as:

  • Governance for integration with the Internet Computer voting system
  • Ledger for financial integration testing
  • Internet Identity for user registration and authenttication

fix: Only kill main process on dfx stop

Removes misleading panics when running dfx stop.

feat: dfx nns install works offline if all assets have been cached.

feat: Initialise the nns with an account controlled by a secp256k1 key

This enables easy access to toy ICP using command line tools and this key:


For example, you can create an identity in dfx by putting this key in the file ident-1.pem and importing it:

dfx identity import ident-1 ident-1.pem
dfx --identity ident-1 ledger balance

feat: default to run ic-wasm shrink when build canisters

This behavior applies to Motoko, Rust and Custom canisters. If you want to disable this behavior, you can config it in dfx.json:

"canisters" : {
"app" : {
"shrink" : false,

feat: configurable custom wasm sections

It's now possible to define custom wasm metadata sections and their visibility in dfx.json.

At present, dfx can only add wasm metadata sections to canisters that are in wasm format. It cannot add metadata sections to compressed canisters. Since the frontend canister is now compressed, this means that at present it is not possible to add custom metadata sections to the frontend canister.

dfx no longer adds candid:service metadata to canisters of type "custom" by default. If you want dfx to add your canister's candid definition to your custom canister, you can do so like this:

    "my_canister_name": {
"type": "custom",
"candid": "main.did",
"wasm": "main.wasm",
"metadata": [
"name": "candid:service"

This changelog entry doesn't go into all of the details of the possible configuration. For that, please see docs/concepts/ and the docs in the JSON schema.

fix: Valid canister-based env vars

Hyphens are not valid in shell environment variables, but do occur in canister names such as smiley-dapp. This poses a problem for vars with names such as CANISTER_ID_${CANISTER_NAME}. With this change, hyphens are replaced with underscores in environment variables. The canister id of smiley-dapp will be available as CANISTER_ID_smiley_dapp. Other environment variables are unaffected.

feat: Add dfx sns deploy

This allows users to deploy a set of SNS canisters.

fix: cargo run -p dfx -- --version prints correct version

feat: add --mode=auto

When using dfx canister install, you can now pass auto for the --mode flag, which will auto-select install or upgrade depending on need, the same way dfx deploy does. The default remains install to prevent mistakes.

feat: add --network flag to dfx generate

dfx generate's generated bindings use network-specific canister IDs depending on the generated language, but there was previously no way to configure which network this was, so it defaulted to local. A --network flag has been added for this purpose.

feat: sns config validate

There is a new command that verifies that an SNS initialization config is valid.

feat: sns config create

There is a new command that creates an sns config template.

fix: remove $ from wasms dir

The wasms dir path had a $ which is unwanted and now gone.

fix: Correct wasm for the SNS swap canister

Previously the incorrect wasm canister was installed.

fix: Use NNS did files that matches the wasms

Previously the did files and wasms could be incompatible.

fix: allow users to skip compatibility check if parsing fails

feat: canister HTTP support is now enabled by default.

dfx start and dfx replica now ignore the --enable-canister-http parameter.

You can still disable the canister http feature through configuration:

  • ~/.config/dfx/networks.json: .local.canister_http.enabled=false
  • dfx.json (project-specific networks) : .networks.local.canister_http.enabled=false

feat: custom canister wasm field can now specify a URL from which to download

  • note that dfx will report an error if a custom canister's wasm field is a URL and the canister also has build steps.

feat: custom canister candid field can now specify a URL from which to download

feat: deploy NNS canisters

A developer is now able to install NNS canisters, including back end canisters such as ledger and governance, and front end canisters such as nns-dapp and internet-identity, on their local DFX server. Usage:

dfx start --clean --background
dfx nns install

This feature currently requires that the network 'local' is used and that it runs on port 8080. The network's port can be controlled by using the field "provider" in the network's definition, e.g. by setting it to "".

feat: configure logging level of http adapter

It is now possible to set the http adapter's log level in dfx.json or in networks.json:

"http": {
"enabled": true,
"log_level": "info"

By default, a log level of "error" is used, in order to keep the output of a first-time dfx start minimal. Change it to "debug" for more verbose logging.

fix(typescript): add index.d.ts file for type safety when importing generated declarations

Adds an index.d.ts file to the generated declarations, allowing for better type safety in TypeScript projects.

chore: reduce verbosity of dfx start

dfx start produces a lot of log output that is at best irrelevant for most users. Most output is no longer visible unless either --verbose is used with dfx or the relevant part's (e.g. http adapter, btc adapter, or replica) log level is changed in dfx.json or networks.json.

feat: generate secp256k1 keys by default

When creating a new identity with dfx identity new, whereas previously it would have generated an Ed25519 key, it now generates a secp256k1 key. This is to enable users to write down a BIP39-style seed phrase, to recover their key in case of emergency, which will be printed when the key is generated and can be used with a new --seed-phrase flag in dfx identity import. dfx identity import is however still capable of importing an Ed25519 key.

chore: update Candid UI canister with commit 528a4b04807904899f67b919a88597656e0cd6fa

  • Allow passing did files larger than 2KB.
  • Better integration with Motoko Playground.

feat: simplify verification of assets served by asset canister

  • SHA256 hashes of all assets are displayed when deploying the asset canister.
  • A query method is added to the asset canister that returns the entire asset hash tree together with the certificate containing the certified variables of the asset canister.

breaking change: dfx canister update-settings --compute-allocation always fails


Until the rollout is complete, dfx canister update-settings --compute-allocation <N> will fail with an error from the replica such as the following:

The Replica returned an error: code 1, message: "Canister requested a compute allocation of 1% which cannot be satisfied because the Subnet's remaining compute capacity is 0%"

fix: For default node starter template: copy ic-assets.json5 file from src to dist

fix: For dfx start --clean --background, the background process no longer cleans a second time.

fix: do not build or generate remote canisters

Canisters that specify a remote id for the network that's getting built falsely had their build steps run, blocking some normal use patterns of dfx deploy. Canisters with a remote id specified no longer get built. The same applies to dfx generate.

refactor: Move replica URL functions into a module for reuse

The running replica port and url are generally useful information. Previously the code to get the URL was embedded in the network proxy code. This moves it out into a library for reuse.

chore: Frontend canister build process no longer depends on dfx or ic-cdk-optimizer

Instead, the build process relies on ic-wasm to provide candid metadata for the canister, and shrinking the canister size by stripping debug symbols and unused fuctions. Additionally, after build step, the .wasm file is archived with gzip.

from (repository path)to (path in dfinity/sdk repository)summary
dfinity/cdk-rs /src/ic-certified-assets/src/canisters/frontend/ic-certified-assetthe core of the frontend canister
dfinity/certified-assets //src/canisters/frontend/ic-frontend-canisterwraps ic-certified-assets to build the canister wasm
dfinity/agent-rs /ic-asset/src/canisters/frontend/ic-assetlibrary facilitating interactions with frontend canister (e.g. uploading or listing assets)
dfinity/agent-rs /icx-asset/src/canisters/frontend/icx-assetCLI executable tool - wraps ic-asset

feat: use JSON5 file format for frontend canister asset configuration

Both .ic-assets.json and .ic-assets.json5 are valid filenames config filename, though both will get parsed as if they were JSON5 format. Example content of the .ic-assets.json5 file:

// comment
"match": "*", // comment
keys below not wrapped in quotes
*/ cache: { max_age: 999 }, // trailing comma

fix: Update nns binaries unless NO_CLOBBER is set

Previously existing NNS binaries were not updated regardless of the NO_CLOBBER setting.

feat!: Support installing canisters not in dfx.json

install_canister_wasm used to fail if installing a canister not listed in dfx.json. This use case is now supported.

feat: print the dashboard URL on startup

When running dfx start or dfx replica, the path to the dashboard page is now printed.

feat!: changed the default port of the shared local network from 8000 to 4943.

This is so dfx doesn't connect to a project-specific network instead of the local shared network.

In combination with the "system-wide dfx start" feature, there is a potential difference to be aware of with respect to existing projects.

Since previous versions of dfx populate dfx.json with a networks.local definition that specifies port 8000, the behavior for existing projects won't change.

However, if you've edited dfx.json and removed the networks.local definition, the behavior within the project will change: dfx will connect to the shared local network on port 4943 rather than to the project-specific network on port 8000. You would need to edit webpack.config.js to match. If you have scripts, you can run the new command dfx info webserver-port from the project directory to retrieve the port value.

feat!: "system-wide dfx start"

By default, dfx now manages the replica process in a way that is independent of any given dfx project. We've called this feature "system-wide dfx", even though it's actually specific to your user (storing data files under $HOME), because we think it communicates the idea adequately.

The intended benefits:

  • deploying dapps from separate projects alongside one another, similar to working with separate dapps on mainnet
  • run dfx start from any directory
  • run dfx stop from any directory, rather than having to remember where you last ran dfx start

We're calling this the "shared local network." dfx start and dfx stop will manage this network when run outside any project directory, or when a project's dfx.json does not define the local network. The dfx.json template for new projects no longer defines any networks.

We recommend that you remove the local network definition from dfx.json and instead use the shared local network. As mentioned above, doing so will make dfx use port 4943 rather than port 8000.

See Local Server Configuration for details.

dfx now stores data and control files in one of three places, rather than directly under .dfx/:

  • .dfx/network/local (for projects in which dfx.json defines the local network)
  • $HOME/.local/share/dfx/network/local (for the shared local network on Linux)
  • $HOME/Library/Application Support/org.dfinity.dfx/network/local (for the shared local network on MacOS)

There is also a new configuration file: $HOME/.config/dfx/networks.json. Its schema is the same as the networks element in dfx.json. Any networks you define here will be available from any project, unless a project's dfx.json defines a network with the same name. See The Shared Local Network for the default definitions that dfx provides if this file does not exist or does not define a local network.

fix: dfx start and dfx stop will take into account dfx/replica processes from dfx <= 0.11.x

feat: added command dfx info

feat: dfx info webserver-port

This displays the port that the icx-proxy process listens on, meaning the port to connect to with curl or from a web browser.

feat: dfx info replica-port

This displays the listening port of the replica.

feat: dfx info replica-rev

This displays the revision of the replica bundled with dfx, which is the same revision referenced in replica election governance proposals.

feat: dfx info networks-json-path

This displays the path to your user's networks.json file where all networks are defined.

feat: added ic-nns-init, ic-admin, and sns executables to the binary cache

fix: improved responsiveness of greet method call in default Motoko project template

greet method was marked as an update call, but it performs no state updates. Changing it to query call will result in faster execution.

feat: dfx schema --for networks

The dfx schema command can now display the schema for either dfx.json or for networks.json. By default, it still displays the schema for dfx.json.

dfx schema --for networks

feat: createActor options accept pre-initialized agent

If you have a pre-initialized agent in your JS code, you can now pass it to createActor's options. Conflicts with the agentOptions config - if you pass both the agent option will be used and you will receive a warning.

const plugActor = createActor(canisterId, {
agent: plugAgent

feat!: option for nodejs compatibility in dfx generate

Users can now specify node_compatibility: true in declarations. The flag introduces node.js enhancements, which include importing isomorphic-fetch and configuring the default actor with isomorphic-fetch and host.

// dfx.json
"declarations": {
"output": "src/declarations",
"node_compatibility": true

JS codegen location deprecation

DFX new template now uses dfx generate instead of rsync. Adds deprecation warning to index.js in .dfx/<network-name>/<canister-name> encouringing developers to migrate to the dfx generate command instead. If you have a package.json file that uses rsync from .dfx, consider switching to something like this:

"scripts": {
"build": "webpack",
"prebuild": "npm run generate",
"start": "webpack serve --mode development --env development",
"prestart": "npm run generate",
// It's faster to only generate canisters you depend on, omitting the frontend canister
"generate": "dfx generate hello_backend"

feat: simple cycles faucet code redemption

Using dfx wallet --network ic redeem-faucet-coupon <my coupon> faucet users have a much easier time to redeem their codes. If the active identity has no wallet configured, the faucet supplies a wallet to the user that this command will automatically configure. If the active identity has a wallet configured already, the faucet will top up the existing wallet.

Alternative faucets can be used, assuming they follow the same interface. To direct dfx to a different faucet, use the --faucet <alternative faucet id> flag. The expected interface looks like the following candid functions:

redeem: (text) -> (principal);
redeem_to_wallet: (text, principal) -> (nat);

The function redeem takes a coupon code and returns the principal to an already-installed wallet that is controlled by the identity that called the function. The function redeem_to_wallet takes a coupon code and a wallet (or any other canister) principal, deposits the cycles into that canister and returns how many cycles were deposited.

feat: disable automatic wallet creation on non-ic networks

By default, if dfx is not running on the ic (or networks with a different name but the same configuration), it will automatically create a cycles wallet in case it hasn't been created yet. It is now possible to inhibit automatic wallet creation by setting the DFX_DISABLE_AUTO_WALLET environment variable.

fix!: removed unused --root parameter from dfx bootstrap

feat: canister installation now waits for the replica

When installing a new WASM module to a canister, DFX will now wait for the updated state (i.e. the new module hash) to be visible in the replica's certified state tree before proceeding with post-installation tasks or producing a success status.

feat!: remove dfx config

dfx config has been removed. Please update Bash scripts to use jq, PowerShell scripts to use ConvertTo-Json, nushell scripts to use to json, etc.

feat: move all the flags to the end

Command flags have been moved to a more traditional location; they are no longer positioned per subcommand, but instead are able to be all positioned after the final subcommand. In prior versions, a command might look like:

dfx --identity alice canister --network ic --wallet "$WALLET" create --all

This command can now be written:

dfx canister create --all --network ic --wallet "$WALLET" --identity alice

The old syntax is still available, though, so you don't need to migrate your scripts.

feat!: changed update-settings syntax

When using dfx canister update-settings, it is easy to mistake --controller for --add-controller. For this reason --controller has been renamed to --set-controller.

feat!: removed the internal webserver

This is a breaking change. The only thing this was still serving was the /_/candid endpoint. If you need to retrieve the candid interface for a local canister, you can use dfx canister metadata <canister> candid:service.

fix: dfx wallet upgrade: improved error messages:

  • if there is no wallet to upgrade
  • if trying to upgrade a local wallet from outside of a project directory

fix: canister creation cost is 0.1T cycles

Canister creation fee was calculated with 1T cycles instead of 0.1T.

fix: dfx deploy and dfx canister install write .old.did files under .dfx/

When dfx deploy and dfx canister install upgrade a canister, they ensure that the new candid interface is compatible with the previous candid interface. They write a file with extension .old.did that contains the previous interface. In some circumstances these files could be written in the project directory. dfx now always writes them under the .dfx/ directory.

fix: dfx canister install now accepts arbitrary canister ids

This fixes the following error:

> dfx canister install --wasm ~/counter.wasm eop7r-riaaa-aaaak-qasxq-cai
Error: Failed while determining if canister 'eop7r-riaaa-aaaak-qasxq-cai' is remote on network 'ic'.
Caused by: Failed while determining if canister 'eop7r-riaaa-aaaak-qasxq-cai' is remote on network 'ic'.
Failed to figure out if canister 'eop7r-riaaa-aaaak-qasxq-cai' has a remote id on network 'ic'.
Invalid argument: Canister eop7r-riaaa-aaaak-qasxq-cai not found in dfx.json

feat: allow replica log level to be configured

It is now possible to specify the replica's log level. Possible values are critical, error, warning, info, debug, and trace. The log level defaults to the level 'error'. Debug prints (e.g. Debug.print("...") in Motoko) still show up in the console. The log level can be specified in the following places (See system-wide dfx start for more detailed explanations on the network types):

  • In file networks.json in the field <network name>.replica.log_level for shared networks.
  • In file dfx.json in the field networks.<network name>.replica.log_level for project-specific networks.
  • In file dfx.json in the field defaults.replica.log_level for project-specific networks. Requires a project-specific network to be run, otherwise this will have no effect.

feat: enable canister sandboxing

Canister sandboxing is enabled to be consistent with the mainnet.

chore: dfx ledger account-id --of-canister also accepts principal

It is now possible to do e.g. dfx ledger account-id --of-canister fg7gi-vyaaa-aaaal-qadca-cai as well as dfx ledger account-id --of-canister my_canister_name when checking the ledger account id of a canister. Previously, dfx only accepted canister aliases and produced an error message that was hard to understand.

chore: dfx canister deposit-cycles uses default wallet if none is specified

Motivated by this forum post.

chore: projects created with dfx new are not pinned to a specific dfx version anymore

It is still possible to pin the dfx version by adding "dfx":"<dfx version to pin to>" to a project's dfx.json.

fix: Small grammar change to identity password decryption prompt

The prompt for entering your passphrase in order to decrypt an identity password read: "Please enter a passphrase for your identity" However, at that point, it isn't "a" passphrase. It's either your passphrase, or incorrect. Changed the text in this case to read: "Please enter the passphrase for your identity"

chore: add retry logic to dfx download script

feat: Add subnet type argument when creating canisters

dfx ledger create-canister gets a new option --subnet-type that allows users to choose a type of subnet that their canister can be created on. Additionally, a dfx ledger show-subnet-types is introduced which allows to list the available subnet types.



Updated replica to release candidate 93dcf2a2026c34330c76149dd713d89e37daa533.

This also incorporates the following executed proposals:


Updated ic-ref to 0.0.1-1fba03ee

  • introduce awaitKnown
  • trivial implementation of idle_cycles_burned_per_day

Updated Motoko from 0.6.29 to 0.7.3

Cycles wallet

Frontend canister:

What's new in DFX 0.11.2

fix: disable asset canister redirection of all HTTP traffic from to

fix: disable asset canister's ETag HTTP headers

The feature is not yet implemented on icx-proxy-level, and is causing 500 HTTP response for some type of assets every second request. We'll bring this feature back in upcoming dfx releases.

What's new in DFX 0.11.1


Fixed: dfx now only adds candid:service metadata to custom canisters that have at least one build step

This way, if a canister uses a premade canister wasm, dfx will use it as-is.

Fixed: "canister alias not defined" in the Motoko language server

It is now possible to develop multiple-canister projects using the Motoko VSCode extension.

Fixed: improve browser compatibility for the JavaScript language binding

Patches a JavaScript language binding compatibility issue encountered in web browsers which do not support the (?.) operator.

New feature: print dfx.json schema

dfx is now capable of displaying the schema for dfx.json. You can see the schema by running dfx schema or write the schema to a file with dfx schema --outfile path/to/file/schema.json.

New feature: support for configuring assets in assets canister

  • The .ic-assets.json file should be placed inside directory with assets, or its subdirectories. Multiple config files can be used (nested in subdirectories). Example of .ic-assets.json file format:
"match": ".*",
"cache": {
"max_age": 20
"headers": {
"X-Content-Type-Options": "nosniff"
"ignore": false
"match": "**/*",
"headers": null
"match": "file.json",
"ignore": true
  • Configuring assets works only during asset creation - any changes to .ic-assets.json files won't have any effect on assets that have already been created. We are working on follow up implementation with improvements to handle updating these properties.

  • headers from multiple applicable rules are being stacked/concatenated, unless null is specified, which resets/empties the headers.

  • Both "headers": {} and absence of headers field don't have any effect on end result.

  • Valid JSON format is required, i.e. the array of maps, match field is required. Only the following fields are accepted: cache, ignore, headers, match. The glob pattern has to be valid.

  • The way matching rules work:

    1. The most deeply nested config file takes precedence over the one in parent dir. In other words, properties from a rule matching a file in a subdirectory override properties from a rule matching a file in a parent directory
    2. Order of rules within file matters - last rule in config file takes precedence over the first one
  • The way ignore field works:

    1. By default, files that begin with a . are ignored, while all other files are included.
    2. The .ignore field overrides this, if present.
    3. If a directory is ignored, file and directories within it cannot be un-ignored.
    4. A file can be ignored and un-ignored many times, as long as any of its parent directories haven't been ignored.

Fixed: Allow dfx deploy to not take arguments for canisters not being installed

A longstanding bug with dfx deploy is that if an installation is skipped (usually an implicitly included dependency), it still requires arguments even if the installed canister doesn't. As of this release that bug is now fixed.

New feature: Add additional logging from bitcoin canister in replica.

Configures the replica to emit additional logging from the bitcoin canister whenever the bitcoin feature is enabled. This helps show useful information to developers, such as the bitcoin height that the replica currently sees.

Fixed: make build field optional for custom canisters

Prior to 0.11.0, a custom canister's build field could be left off if dfx build was never invoked. To aid in deploying prebuilt canisters, this behavior is now formalized; omitting build is equivalent to build: [].

New feature: Use --locked for Rust canisters

dfx build, in Rust canisters, now uses the --locked flag when building with Cargo. To offset this, dfx new --type rust now runs cargo update on the resulting project.

New feature: Enable threshold ecdsa signature

ECDSA signature signing is now enabled by default in new projects, or by running dfx start --clean. A test key id "Secp256k1:dfx_test_key" is ready to be used by locally created canisters.


Updated agent-rs to 0.20.0

Updated candid to 0.7.15


Updated replica to elected commit 6e86169e98904047833ba6133e5413d2758d90eb. This incorporates the following executed proposals:

What's new in DFX 0.11.0

Breaking changes

Duplicate asset keys are now reported as errors

The webpack.config.js included in new projects created by previous versions of dfx copied all files from src/<project>/assets into dist/<project>. Since the default asset canister defines both of these as a source, these assets will show up as duplicates.

For existing projects, you will need to remove the following from webpack.config.js and delete the dist/ directory, or else dfx deploy will fail:

new CopyPlugin({
patterns: [
from: path.join(__dirname, "src", frontendDirectory, "assets"),
to: path.join(__dirname, "dist", frontendDirectory),

Removed deprecated candid path environment variable

Any reference to environment variables of the form CANISTER_CANDID_{name} (formerly used in Rust projects) must be replace with CANISTER_CANDID_PATH_{name}.

Changes to DFX

New feature: renamed canisters in new projects to <project>_frontend and <project>_backend

The names of canisters created for new projects have changed. After dfx new <project>, the canister names are:

  • <project>_backend (previously <project>)
  • <project>_frontend (previously <project>_assets)

New feature: Enable threshold ecdsa signature

ECDSA signature signing is now enabled by default in new projects, or by running dfx start --clean. A test key id "Secp256k1:dfx_test_key" is ready to be used by locally created canisters.

Refactor: optimize from ic-wasm

Optimize Rust canister WASM module via ic-wasm library instead of ic-cdk-optimizer. A separate installation of ic-cdk-optimizer is no longer needed.

The actual optimization was kept the same.

New feature: Read dfx canister call argument from a file or stdin

Enables passing large arguments that cannot be passed directly in the command line using the --argument-file flag. For example:

  • Named file: dfx canister call --argument-file ./my/argument/file.txt my_canister_name greet
  • Stdin: echo '( null )' | dfx canister call --argument-file - my_canister_name greet

Fixed: Use default setting for BTC adapter idle seconds

A lower threshold was no longer necessary.

New feature: Allow users to configure logging level of bitcoin adapter

The bitcoin adapter's logging can be very verbose if debug logging is enabled, making it difficult to make sense of what's going on. On the other hand, these logs are useful for triaging problems.

To get the best of both worlds, this release adds support for an additional configuration option in dfx.json:

"bitcoin": {
"enabled": true,
"nodes": [""],
"log_level": "info" <------- users can now configure the log level

By default, a log level of "info" is used, which is relatively quiet. Users can change it to "debug" for more verbose logging.

Chore: update Candid UI canister with commit bffa0ae3c416e8aa3c92c33722a6b1cb31d0f1c3

This includes the following changes:

  • Fetch did file from canister metadata
  • Better flamegraph support
  • Fix bigint error for vec nat8 type

New feature: dfx will look up the port of the running webserver from .dfx/webserver-port, if present

After dfx start --host, the dfx webserver will listen on an ephemeral port. It stores the port value in .dfx/webserver-port. dfx will now look for this file, and if a port is contained within, use that port to connect to the dfx webserver.

Fixed: dfx commands once again work from any subdirectory of a dfx project

Running dfx deploy, dfx canister id, dfx canister call and so forth work as expected if run from within any subdirectory of a dfx project. Previously, this would create canister_ids.json or .dfx/local/canister_ids.json within the subdirectory.

New feature: Post-installation tasks

You can now add your own custom post-installation/post-deployment tasks to any canister type. The new post-install key for canister objects in dfx.json can be a command or list of commands, similar to the build key of custom canisters, and receives all the same environment variables. For example, to replicate the upload task performed with assets canisters, you might set "post-install": "icx-asset sync $CANISTER_ID dist".

New feature: assets are no longer copied from source directories before being uploaded to asset canister

Assets are now uploaded directly from their source directories, rather than first being copied to an output directory.

If you're using dfx deploy, you won't see any change in functionality. If you're running dfx canister install --mode=upgrade, changed files in asset source directories will be detected and uploaded even without an intervening dfx build.

Fixed: Added src/declarations to .gitignore for new projects

Fixed: remove deprecated candid path environment variable

The environment variable format CANISTER_CANDID_{name}, used in Rust projects, was deprecated in 0.9.2, to be unified with the variables CANISTER_CANDID_PATH_{name} which are used in other project types. It has now been removed. Note that you will need to update ic-cdk-macros if you use the #[import] macro.

New feature: deprecate dfx config for removal

The dfx config command has several issues and is ultimately a poor replacement for jq. The command is being deprecated, and will be removed in a later release; we recommend switching to jq or similar tools (e.g. ConvertTo-Json in PowerShell, to json in nushell, etc.)

New feature: Better build scripts for type:custom

Build scripts now always receive a CWD of the DFX project root, instead of wherever dfx was invoked from, and a bare script can be specified without needing to prefix with ./.

New feature: rust, custom, and asset canisters now include candid:service metadata

Motoko canisters already included this metadata.

Also added this metadata to the asset canister wasm, which will cause the next deploy to install this new version.

New feature: Add safeguard to freezing threshold

Some developers mistakenly think that the freezing threshold is measured in cycles, but it is actually measured in seconds. To stop them from accidentally freezing their canisters, setting a freezing threshold above 50M seconds (~1.5 years) now requires a confirmation.

Fixed: restores assets to webpack devserver

Chore: updates webpack dependencies for dfx new project

Resolves an issue where webpack-cli was was breaking when users tried to run npm start in a fresh project. For affected users of 0.10.1, you can resolve this issue manually by running npm install webpack@latest webpack-cli@latest terser-webpack-plugin@latest.

New feature: Support for new ledger notify function

Ledger 7424ea8 deprecates the existing notify function with a switch parameter between creating and topping up a canister, and introduces two functions for doing the same. This should mostly be invisible to users, except that previously, if dfx ledger create-canister or dfx ledger top-up failed, you would call dfx ledger notify after correcting the issue. In order to support the change, this command has been changed to two subcommands: dfx ledger notify create-canister and dfx ledger notify top-up.

New feature: --from-subaccount

Previously, the ledger commands assumed all transfers were made from the default subaccount for the identity principal. This feature adds a --from-subaccount flag to dfx ledger transfer, dfx ledger create-canister, and dfx ledger top-up, to enable making transfers from a selected subaccount. A --subaccount flag is also added to dfx ledger balance for convenience. Subaccounts are expected as 64-character hex-strings (i.e. 32 bytes).

New feature: cargo audit when building rust canisters

When a canister with type rust is built and cargo-audit is installed, dfx will now check for vulnerabilities in the dependencies. If a vulnerability is found, dfx will recommend that the user update to a version without known vulnerabilities.

Fixed: Freezing Threshold now documented

Calls made to retrieve the help output for canister update-settings was missing the freezing-threshold parameter.

Chore: warnings and errors are more visible

WARN and ERROR messages are now clearly labelled as such, and the labels are colored accordingly. This is now included when running dfx canister update-settings -h.

Fixed: canister call uses candid file if canister type cannot be determined

The candid file specified in the field canisters.<canister name>.candid of dfx.json, or if that not exists canisters.<canister name>.remote.candid, is now used when running dfx canister call, even when dfx fails to determine the canister type.

Fixed: btc/canister http adapter socket not found by replica after restart

After running dfx start --enable-bitcoin twice in a row (stopping dfx in between), the second launched replica would fail to connect to the btc adapter. This is because ic-starter does not write a new configuration file if one already exists, so the configuration file used by the replica referred to one socket path, while dfx passed a different socket path to the btc adapter.

Now dfx reuses the previously-used unix domain socket path, for both the btc adapter and for the canister http adapter.

Fixed: dfx stop now waits until dfx and any child processes exit

Previously, dfx stop would send the TERM signal to the running dfx and its child processes, and then exit immediately.

This avoids interference between a dfx process performing cleanup at shutdown and a dfx process that is starting.

Fixed: dfx ping no longer creates a default identity

dfx ping now uses the anonymous identity, and no longer requires dfx.json to be present.

Fixed: Initialize replica with bitcoin regtest flag

When the bitcoin feature is enabled, dfx was launching the replica with the "bitcoin_testnet" feature. The correct feature to use is "bitcoin_regtest".

New feature: dfx bootstrap now looks up the port of the local replica

dfx replica writes the port of the running replica to one of these locations:

  • .dfx/replica-configuration/replica-1.port
  • .dfx/ic-ref.port

dfx bootstrap will now use this port value, so it's no longer necessary to edit dfx.json after running dfx replica.

New feature: dfx.json local network settings can be set on the local network, rather than defaults

In dfx.json, the bootstrap, bitcoin, canister_http, and replica settings can now be specified on the local network, rather than in the defaults field. If one of these four fields is set for the local network, the corresponding field in defaults will be ignored.


"networks": {
"local": {
"bind": "",
"canister_http": {
"enabled": true


Rust Agent

Updated agent-rs to 0.18.0


Updated Motoko from 0.6.28 to 0.6.29.


Updated replica to elected commit 8993849de5fab76e796d67750facee55a0bf6649. This incorporates the following executed proposals:


Updated ic-ref to 0.0.1-173cbe84

  • add ic0.performance_counter system interface
  • add system API for ECDSA signing
  • allow optional "error_code" field in responses
  • support gzip-compressed canister modules
  • enable canisters to send HTTP requests

What’s new in 0.10.1

Changes to DFX

Fixed: Webpack config no longer uses CopyPlugin

Dfx already points to the asset canister's assets directory, and copying to disk could sometimes lead to an annoying "too many open files" error.

Fixed: HSMs are once again supported on Linux

On Linux, dfx 0.10.0 failed any operation with an HSM with the following error: Error: IO: Dynamic loading not supported

The fix was to once again dynamically-link the Linux build.

New feature: error explanation and fixing instructions engine

Dfx is now capable of providing explanations and remediation suggestions for entire categories of errors at a time. Explanations and suggestions will slowly be added over time. To see an example of an already existing suggestion, run dfx deploy --network ic while using an identity that has no wallet configured.

Improvement: add context to errors

Most errors that happen within dfx are now reported in much more detail. No more plain File not found without explanation what even was attempted.

Fixed: identities with configured wallets are not broken anymore and removed only when using the --drop-wallets flag

When an identity has a configured wallet, dfx no longer breaks the identity without actually removing it. Instead, if the --drop-wallets flag is specified, it properly removes everything and logs what wallets were linked, and when the flag is not specified, it does not remove anything.

The behavior for identities without any configured wallets is unchanged.

New Feature: print wallet balance in a human readable form

Default behaviour changed for dfx wallet balance, it will now print cycles amount upscaled to trillions.

New flag --precise added to dfx wallet balance. Allows to get exact amount of cycles in wallet (without upscaling).

Fixed: specifying ic provider with a trailing slash is recognised correctly

Specifying the network provider as instead of is now recognised as the real IC network.

Binary cache

Added ic-canister-http-adapter to the binary cache.


Updated agent-rs to 0.17.0


Updated Motoko from 0.6.26 to 0.6.28.


Updated replica to elected commit b90edb9897718730f65e92eb4ff6057b1b25f766. This incorporates the following executed proposals:


Updated icx-proxy to commit c312760a62b20931431ba45e5b0168ee79ea5cda

  • Added gzip and deflate body decoding before certification validation.
  • Fixed unzip and streaming bugs
  • Added Prometheus metrics endpoint
  • Added root and invalid ssl and dns mapping

Highlights of what’s new in 0.10.0

An overview of the 0.10.0 release:

The default subnet type is now application for local networks. This means cycles limits will match the values enforced for your canisters on mainnet, and the local replica will track cycle usage for your canisters. You can top up your local canisters with the new dfx ledger fabricate-cycles command.

We've upgraded the cycles wallet to support 128-bit operations. You will need to upgrade it with dfx wallet upgrade and/or dfx wallet --network ic upgrade.

dfx can now store private keys in an encrypted format.

Changes to DFX

New feature: Use null as default value for opt arguments

Before this, deploy ing a canister with an opt Foo init argument without specifying an --argument would lead to an error:

$ dfx deploy
Error: Invalid data: Expected arguments but found none.

With this change, this isn't an error anymore, but instead null is passed as a value. In general, if the user does not provide an --argument, and if the init method expects only opt arguments, then dfx will supply null for each argument.

Note in particular that this does not try to match opt arguments for heterogeneous (opt/non-opt) signatures. Note moreover that this only impacts a case that would previously error out, so no existing (working) workflows should be affected.

New feature: dfx identity set-wallet now checks that the provided canister is actually a wallet

This check was previously performed on local networks, but not on mainnet.

New feature: dfx canister call --candid <path to candid file>

Allows one to provide the .did file for calls to an arbitrary canister.

New feature: Install arbitrary wasm into canisters

You no longer need a DFX project setup with a build task to install an already-built wasm module into a canister ID. The new --wasm <path> flag to dfx canister install will bypass project configuration and install the wasm module at <path>. A DFX project setup is still recommended for general use; this should mostly be used for installing pre-built canisters. Note that DFX will also not perform its usual checks for API/ABI/stable-memory compatibility in this mode.

New feature: Support for 128-bit cycle counts

Cycle counts can now exceed the previously set maximum of 2^64. The new limit is 2^128. A new wallet version has been bundled with this release that supports the new cycle count. You will not be able to use this feature with your existing wallets without running dfx wallet upgrade, but old wallets will still work just fine with old cycle counts.

Fixed: dfx start will once again notice if dfx is already running

dfx will once again display 'dfx is already running' if dfx is already running, rather than 'Address already in use'.

As a consequence, after dfx start failed to notice that dfx was already running, it would replace .dfx/pid with an empty file. Later invocations of dfx stop would display no output and return a successful exit code, but leave dfx running.

Fixed: dfx canister update-settings <canister id> works even if the canister id is not known to the project.

This makes the behavior match the usage text of the command: <CANISTER> Specifies the canister name or id to update. You must specify either canister name/id or the --all option

New feature: dfx deploy --upgrade-unchanged or dfx canister install --mode upgrade --upgrade-unchanged

When upgrading a canister, dfx deploy and dfx canister install skip installing the .wasm if the wasm hash did not change. This avoids a round trip through stable memory for all assets on every dfx deploy, for example. By passing this argument, dfx will instead install the wasm even if its hash matches the already-installed wasm.

New feature: Introduce DFX_CACHE_ROOT environment variable

A new environment variable, DFX_CACHE_ROOT, has been introduced to allow setting the cache root directory to a different location than the configuration root directory. Previously DFX_CONFIG_ROOT was repurposed for this which only allowed one location to be set for both the cache and configuration root directories.

This is a breaking change since setting DFX_CONFIG_ROOT will no longer set the cache root directory to that location.

Fixed: Error if nonzero cycles are passed without a wallet proxy

Previously, dfx canister call --with-cycles 1 would silently ignore the --with-cycles argument as the DFX principal has no way to pass cycles and the call must be forwarded through the wallet. Now it will error instead of silently ignoring it. To forward a call through the wallet, use --wallet $(dfx identity get-wallet), or --wallet $(dfx identity --network ic get-wallet) for mainnet.

New feature: Configure subnet type of local replica

The local replica sets its parameters according to the subnet type defined in defaults.replica.subnet_type, defaulting to 'application' when none is specified. This makes it less likely to accidentally hit the cycles limit exceeded error in production. Since the previous default was system, you may see these types of errors in development instead. Possible values for defaults.replica.subnet_type are: "application", "verifiedapplication", "system"

Example how to specify the subnet type:

"defaults": {
"replica": {
"subnet_type": "verifiedapplication"

New feature: Introduce command for local cycles top-up

dfx ledger fabricate-cycles <canister (id)> <optional amount> can be used during local development to create cycles out of thin air and add them to a canister. Instead of supplying a canister name or id it is also possible to use --all to add the cycles to every canister in the current project. When no amount is supplied, the command uses 10T cycles as default. Using this command with --network ic will result in an error.

New feature: Private keys can be stored in encrypted format

dfx identity new and dfx identity import now ask you for a password to encrypt the private key (PEM file) when it is stored on disk. If you decide to use a password, your key will never be written to disk in plain text. In case you don't want to enter your password all the time and want to take the risk of storing your private key in plain text, you can use the --disable-encryption flag.

The default identity as well as already existing identities will NOT be encrypted. If you want to encrypt an existing identity, use the following commands:

dfx identity export identity_name > identity.pem
# if you have set old_identity_name as the identity that is used by default, switch to a different one
dfx identity use other_identity
dfx identity remove identity_name
dfx identity import identity_name identity.pem

New feature: Identity export

If you want to get your identity out of dfx, you can use dfx identity export identityname > exported_identity.pem. But be careful with storing this file as it is not protected with your password.

New feature: Identity new/import now has a --force flag

If you want to script identity creation and don't care about overwriting existing identities, you now can use the --force flag for the commands dfx identity new and dfx identity import.

Fixed: Do not automatically create a wallet on IC

When running dfx deploy --network ic, dfx canister --network ic create, or dfx identity --network ic get-wallet dfx no longer automatically creates a cycles wallet for the user if none is configured. Instead, it will simply report that no wallet was found for that user.

Dfx still creates the wallet automatically when running on a local network, so the typical workflow of dfx start --clean and dfx deploy will still work without having to manually create the wallet.

Fixed: Identities cannot exist and not at the same time

When something went wrong during identity creation, the identity was not listed as existing. But when trying to create an identity with that name, it was considered to be already existing.

Fixed: report context of errors

dfx now displays the context of an error in several places where previously the only error message would be something like "No such file or directory."

chore: updates starter project for Node 18

Webpack dev server now works for Node 18 (and should work for Node 17). A few packages are also upgraded

Updating Dependencies

Updated to version 0.14.0 of agent-rs

Cycles wallet

Module hash: bb001d1ebff044ba43c060956859f614963d05c77bd778468fce4de095fe8f92


Updated replica to elected commit b3788091fbdb8bed7e527d2df4cc5e50312f476c. This incorporates the following executed proposals:

Added the ic-btc-adapter binary to the cache.


Updated Motoko from 0.6.25 to 0.6.26.


An overview of the 0.9.3 release:

Changes to DFX

New feature: dfx deploy now displays URLs for the frontend and candid interface


In preparation for BTC integration, added configuration for the bitcoind port:

"canisters": {},
"defaults": {
"bitcoind": {
"port": 18333

Changes to icx-proxy

Updated icx-proxy to commit 594b6c81cde6da4e08faee8aa8e5a2e6ae815602, now static-linked.

  • upgrade HTTP calls upon canister request

  • no longer proxies /_/raw to the dfx internal webserver

  • allows for generic StreamingCallback tokens

Changes to Replica

Updated replica to blessed commit d004accc3904e24dddb13a11d93451523e1a8a5f. This incorporates the following executed proposals:


Updated Motoko from 0.6.21 to 0.6.25.


An overview of the 0.9.2 release:

Be sure to see the 0.9.0 Release Notes and follow the instructions due to breaking changes since dfx 0.8.4.

Changes to DFX

New Feature: Verify Candid and Motoko stable variable type safety of canister upgrades

Newly deployed Motoko canisters now embed the Candid interface and Motoko stable signatures in the Wasm module. dfx deploy and dfx canister install will automatically check

1) the backward compatible of Candid interface in both upgrade and reinstall mode;
2) the type safety of Motoko stable variable type in upgrade mode to avoid accidentally lossing data;

See Upgrade compatibility for more details.

New Feature: Unified environment variables across build commands

The three canister types that use a custom build tool - assets, rust, and custom - now all support the same set of environment variables during the build task:

  • DFX_VERSION - The version of DFX that was used to build the canister.

  • DFX_NETWORK - The network name being built for. Usually ic or local.

  • CANISTER_ID_{canister} - The canister principal ID of the canister {canister} registered in dfx.json.

  • CANISTER_CANDID_PATH_{canister} - The path to the Candid interface file for the canister {canister} among your canister’s dependencies.

  • CANISTER_CANDID_{canister} (deprecated) - the same as CANISTER_CANDID_PATH_{canister}. This is provided for backwards compatibility with rust and custom canisters, and will be removed in dfx 0.10.0.

  • CANISTER_ID - Same as CANISTER_ID_{self}, where {self} is the name of this canister.

  • CANISTER_CANDID_PATH - Same as CANISTER_CANDID_PATH_{self}, where {self} is the name of this canister.

New Feature: Support for local ledger calls

If you have an installation of the ICP Ledger (see Ledger Installation Guide), dfx ledger balance and dfx ledger transfer now support --ledger-canister-id parameter.

Some examples:

$ dfx ledger \
--network local \
balance \
--ledger-canister-id rrkah-fqaaa-aaaaa-aaaaq-cai
1000.00000000 ICP

$ dfx ledger \
--network local \
transfer --amount 0.1 --memo 0 \
--ledger-canister-id rrkah-fqaaa-aaaaa-aaaaq-cai 8af54f1fa09faeca18d294e0787346264f9f1d6189ed20ff14f029a160b787e8
Transfer sent at block height: 1

New Feature: dfx ledger account-id can now compute canister addresses

The dfx ledger account-id can now compute addresses of principals and canisters. The command also supports ledger subaccounts now.

dfx ledger account-id --of-principal 53zcu-tiaaa-aaaaa-qaaba-cai
dfx ledger --network small02 account-id --of-canister ledger_demo
dfx ledger account-id --of-principal 53zcu-tiaaa-aaaaa-qaaba-cai --subaccount 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001

New Feature: Print the full error chain in case of a failure

All dfx commands will now print the full stack of errors that led to the problem, not just the most recent error. Example:

Error: Subaccount '00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000' is not a valid hex string
Caused by:
Odd number of digits

Fixed: dfx import will now import pem files created by quill generate

quill generate currently outputs .pem files without an EC PARAMETERS section. dfx identity import will now correctly identify these as EC keys, rather than Ed25519.

Fixed: retry on failure for ledger create-canister, top-up, transfer

dfx now calls transfer rather than send_dfx, and sets the created_at_time field in order to retry the following commands:

  • dfx ledger create-canister

  • dfx ledger top-up

  • dfx ledger transfer

New Feature: Remote canister support

It’s now possible to specify that a canister in dfx.json references a "remote" canister on a specific network, that is, a canister that already exists on that network and is managed by some other project.

Motoko, Rust, and custom canisters may be configured in this way.

This is the general format of the configuration in dfx.json:

"canisters": {
"<canister name>": {
"remote": {
"candid": "<path to candid file to use when building on remote networks>"
"id": {
"<network name>": "<principal on network>"

The "id" field, if set for a given network, specifies the canister ID for the canister on that network. The canister will not be created or installed on these remote networks. For other networks, the canister will be created and installed as usual.

The "candid" field, if set within the remote object, specifies the candid file to build against when building other canisters on a network for which the canister is remote. This definition can differ from the candid definitions for local builds.

For example, if have an installation of the ICP Ledger (see Ledger Installation Guide) in your dfx.json, you could configure the canister ID of the Ledger canister on the IC network as below. In this case, the private interfaces would be available for local builds, but only the public interfaces would be available when building for --network ic.

"canisters": {
"ledger": {
"type": "custom",
"wasm": "ledger.wasm",
"candid": "ledger.private.did",
"remote": {
"candid": "ledger.public.did",
"id": {
"ic": "ryjl3-tyaaa-aaaaa-aaaba-cai"
"app": {
"type": "motoko",
"main": "src/app/",
"dependencies": [ "ledger" ]

As a second example, suppose that you wanted to write a mock of the ledger in Motoko. In this case, since the candid definition is provided for remote networks, dfx build (with implicit --network local) will build app against the candid definitions defined by, but dfx build --network ic will build app against ledger.public.did.

This way, you can define public update/query functions to aid in local testing, but when building/deploying to mainnet, references to methods not found in ledger.public.did will be reported as compilation errors.

"canisters": {
"ledger": {
"type": "motoko",
"main": "src/ledger/",
"remote": {
"candid": "ledger.public.did",
"id": {
"ic": "ryjl3-tyaaa-aaaaa-aaaba-cai"
"app": {
"type": "motoko",
"main": "src/app/",
"dependencies": [ "ledger" ]

New Feature: Generating remote canister bindings

It’s now possible to generate the interface of a remote canister using a .did file using the dfx remote generate-binding <canister name>|--all command. This makes it easier to write mocks for local development.

Currently, dfx can generate .mo, .rs, .ts, and .js bindings.

This is how you specify how to generate the bindings in dfx.json:

"canisters": {
"<canister name>": {
"main": "<path to mo/rs/ts/js file that will be generated>",
"remote": {
"candid": "<path to candid file to use when generating bindings>"
"id": {}


Updated Motoko from 0.6.20 to 0.6.21.


Updated replica to blessed commit 04fe8b0a1262f07c0cec1fdfa838a37607370a61. This incorporates the following executed proposals:


Upgraded from a432156f24faa16d387c9d36815f7ddc5d50e09f to ab8e3f5a04f0f061b8157c2889f8f5de05f952bb

  • Support 128-bit system api for cycles

  • Include canister_ranges in the state tree

  • Removed limit on cycles in a canister


An overview of the 0.9.0 release:

This release removes the --no-wallet parameter by making use of the fact that canisters can now have multiple controllers.

Please see below for required upgrade steps.

Changes to DFX

New feature (breaking change): Remove the wallet proxy and the --no-wallet flag

Breaking change: Canister commands, except for dfx canister create, will make the call directly, rather than via the user’s wallet. The --no-wallet flag is thus removed from dfx canister as its behavior is the default.

When working with existing canisters, use the --wallet flag in conjunction with dfx identity get-wallet in order to restore the old behavior.

You will need to upgrade your wallet and each of your existing canisters to work with the new system. To do so, execute the following in each of your dfx projects:

dfx wallet upgrade
dfx canister --wallet "$(dfx identity get-wallet)" update-settings --all --add-controller "$(dfx identity get-principal)"

To upgrade projects that you have deployed to the IC mainnet, execute the following:

dfx wallet --network ic upgrade
dfx canister --network ic --wallet "$(dfx identity --network ic get-wallet)" update-settings --all --add-controller "$(dfx identity get-principal)"

New feature: Add --add-controller and --remove-controller flags for "canister update-settings"

dfx canister update-settings previously only let you overwrite the entire controller list; --add-controller and --remove-controller instead add or remove from the list.

New feature: Add --no-withdrawal flag for "canister delete" for when the canister is out of cycles

dfx canister delete --no-withdrawal <canister> can be used to delete a canister without attempting to withdraw cycles.

Fixed: set RUST_MIN_STACK to 8MB for ic-starter (and therefore replica)

This matches the value used in production and is meant to exceed the configured 5 MB wasmtime stack.

Fixed: asset uploads will retry failed requests as expected

Fixed a defect in asset synchronization where no retries would be attempted after the first 30 seconds overall.


Updated Motoko from 0.6.11 to 0.6.20.

  • Implement type union/intersection

  • Transform for-loops on arrays into while-loops

  • Tighten typing rules for type annotations in patterns

  • Candid decoding: skip vec any fast

  • Bump up MAX_HP_FOR_GC from 1GB to 3GB

  • Candid decoder: Trap if a principal value is too large

  • Eliminate bignum calls from for-iteration on arrays

  • Improve scheduling

  • Improve performance of bignum equality

  • Stable signatures: frontend, metadata, command-line args

  • Added heartbeat support

Cycles wallet

Module hash: 53ec1b030f1891bf8fd3877773b15e66ca040da539412cc763ff4ebcaf4507c5


Updated replica to blessed commit 75138bbf11e201aac47266f07bee289dc18a082b. This incorporates the following executed proposals:

Repeated warning about missing max_block_payload_size registry setting

The replica logs will display a warning about a missing registry setting approximately every five minutes. The replica will use the required minimum value. You can ignore this warning.

The warnings look like this:

Jan 19 19:03:42.719 WARN s:crz25-qujie-7jqyj-d5ldq-p3psu-y2hmg-c32rf-pnfda-xskfm-dtnmc-iqe/n:fw7p7-4ynfm-s6e5c-axkum-76532-d2k4j-aowre-7twtq-gabts-hfs2e-cae/ic_consensus/payload_builder max_block_payload_size too small. current value: 0, required minimum: 3670016! max_block_payload_size must be larger than max_ingress_bytes_per_message and MAX_XNET_PAYLOAD_IN_BYTES. Update registry!


An overview of the 0.8.4 release:

  • Added first-class support for rust canisters.

  • The included replica now supports canister_heartbeat.

Changes to DFX

New feature: Added "rust" canister type

You can now declare "rust" canisters in dfx.json.

"canisters": {
"canister_name": {
"type": "rust",
"package": "crate_name",
"candid": "path/to/canister_name.did"

Don’t forget to place a Cargo.toml in your project root. Then dfx will build the rust canister with your rust toolchain. Please also make sure that you have added the WebAssembly compilation target.

rustup target add wasm32-unknown-unknown

You can also create new dfx project with a default rust canister.

dfx new --type=rust <project-name>

Updated the new project template

Updated dependencies to latest for Webpack, and updated the configuration. Additionally simplified environment variables for canister IDs in config.

Additionally added some polish to the starter template, including a favicon and using more semantic html in the example app

New feature: environment variable overrides for executable pathnames

You can now override the location of any executable normally called from the cache by specifying an environment variable. For example, DFX_ICX_PROXY_PATH will specify the path for icx-proxy.

New feature: dfx deploy --mode=reinstall \<canister>

dfx deploy can now reinstall a single canister, controlled by a new --mode=reinstall parameter. This is destructive (it resets the state of the canister), so it requires a confirmation and can only be performed on a single canister at a time.

dfx canister install --mode=reinstall <canister> also requires the same confirmation, and no longer works with --all.

Changes to Replica

The included replica now supports canister_heartbeat. This only works with rust canisters for the time being, and does not work with the emulator (dfx start --emulator).


An overview of the 0.8.3 release:

Breaking change: Removed --no-artificial-delay option from dfx start and dfx replica

Changes to DFX

Breaking change: Replaced --no-artificial-delay option with a sensible default

The --no-artificial-delay option not being the default has been causing a lot of confusion. Now that we have measured in production and already applied a default of 600ms to most subnets deployed, we set the same default for dfx and removed this option.

Changes to Replica

Fixed: ic-ref linux binary no longer references /nix/store

This means dfx start --emulator has a chance of working on linux if nix is not installed. This has always been broken, even before dfx 0.7.0.

Fixed: replica and ic-starter linux binaries no longer reference /nix/store

This means dfx start will work again on linux. This bug was introduced in dfx 0.8.2.

Changes to Motoko

Updated Motoko from 0.6.10 to 0.6.11

  • Assertion error messages are now reproducible (#2821)


An overview of the 0.8.2 release:

  • Breaking change in how to specify a controller to dfx canister create

  • Be sure to upgrade your wallet with dfx wallet upgrade, or dfx wallet --network ic upgrade

Changes to DFX

Breaking change: controller parameter for dfx canister create

Breaking change: The controller parameter for dfx canister create is now passed as a named parameter, rather than optionally following the canister name.

Old: dfx canister create [canister name] [controller] New: dfx canister create --controller \<controller> [canister name]

JS Codegen update - JSDoc comment now accepts a complete Agent for createActor

dfx canister delete can now return cycles to a wallet or dank

By default dfx canister delete will return cycles to the default cycles wallet. Cycles can be returned to a designated canister with --withdraw-cycles-to-canister and cycles can be returned to dank at the current identity principal with --withdraw-cycles-to-dank and to a designated principal with --withdraw-cycles-to-dank-principal.

New feature: dfx canister create now accepts multiple instances of --controller argument

It is now possible to create canisters with more than one controller by passing multiple instances of the --controller parameter to dfx canister create.

You will need to upgrade your wallet with dfx wallet upgrade, or dfx wallet --network ic upgrade

New feature: dfx canister update-settings now accepts multiple instance of --controller argument

It is now possible to configure a canister to have more than one controller by passing multiple instances of the --controller parameter to dfx canister update-settings.

New feature: dfx canister info and dfx canister status now display all controllers

Fixed: dfx now respects $DFX_CONFIG_ROOT when looking for legacy credentials

Previously this would always look in $HOME/.dfinity/identity/creds.pem.

Fixed: changed dfx canister (create|update-settings) --memory-allocation limit to 12 GiB

Updated the maximum value for the --memory-allocation value to be 12 GiB (12,884,901,888 bytes)

Changes to Cycles Wallet

Added support for multiple controllers

You will need to upgrade your wallet with dfx wallet upgrade, or dfx wallet --network ic upgrade

Changes to Replica

  • Updated to Interface Spec 0.18.0

    • A canister has a set of controllers, instead of always one
  • Added support for 64-bit stable memory

  • The replica now goes through an initialization sequence, reported in its status as replica_health_status. Until this reports as healthy, queries or updates will fail.

    • dfx start --background waits to exit until replica_health_status is healthy.

    • If you run dfx start without --background, you can call dfx ping --wait-healthy to wait until the replica is healthy.

Changes to Motoko

Updated Motoko from 0.6.7 to 0.6.10

  • Add Debug.trap : Text → None (motoko-base #288)

  • Introduce primitives for IntFloat conversions (#2733)

  • Fix crashing bug for formatting huge floats (#2737)


An overview of the 0.8.1 release:

  • Adds a dfx generate command to generate types for code editors.

  • Adds support for anonymous identities.

  • Makes dfx import work with default identities.

  • Adds support for nonstandard wallet modules.

  • Improves performance of the asset canister to allow for storage of more and larger assets.

  • Updates to version 0.6.7 of Motoko.

Changes to DFX

New command: dfx generate

dfx generate

This new command will generate type declarations for canisters in dfx.json.

You can control what will be generated and how with corresponding configuration in dfx.json.

Under dfx.json → "canisters" → "\<canister_name>", developers can add a "declarations" config. Options are:

  • "output" → directory to place declarations for that canister | default is "src/declarations/\<canister_name>"

  • "bindings" → [] list of options, ("js", "ts", "did", "mo") | default is "js", "ts", "did"

  • "env_override" → a string that will replace process.env.{canister_name_uppercase}_CANISTER_ID in the "src/dfx/assets/language_bindings/canister.js" template.

js declarations output

  • index.js (generated from "src/dfx/assets/language_bindings/canister.js" template)

  • \<canister_name>.did.js - candid js binding output

ts declarations output

  • \<canister_name>.did.d.ts - candid ts binding output

did declarations output

  • \<canister_name>.did - candid did binding output

mo declarations output

  • \<canister_name>.mo - candid mo binding output

New feature: dfx now supports the anonymous identity

Use it with either of these forms:

dfx identity use anonymous
dfx --identity anonymous ...

feat: import default identities

Default identities are the pem files generated by dfx identity new …​ which contain Ed25519 private keys. They are located at ~/.config/dfx/identity/xxx/identity.pem. Now, you can copy such pem file to another computer and import it there.

dfx identity new alice
cp ~/.config/dfx/identity/xxx/identity.pem alice.pem
# copy the pem file to another computer, then
dfx identity import alice alice.pem

Before, people could manually copy the pem files to the target directory to "import". That workaround still works. We suggest using the import subcommand since it also validate the private key.

New feature: Can now provide a nonstandard wallet module with DFX_WALLET_WASM environment variable

Define DFX_WALLET_WASM in the environment to use a different wasm module when creating or upgrading the wallet.

Changes to the Asset Canister

Performance improvement: trust full asset SHA-256 hashes provided by the caller

When the caller provides SHA-256 hashes (which dfx does), the asset canister will no longer recompute these hashes when committing the changes. These recomputations were causing canisters to run out of cycles, or to attempt to exceed the maximum cycle limit per update.


The 0.8.0 release includes updates and fixes that are primarily internal to improve existing features and functions rather than user-visible, as well as potentially breaking changes to some frontend projects.

  1. improvements to codegen from 0.7.7

  2. set-wallet command no longer requires --force flag

Instructions on migrating to dfx 0.8.0

If your project does not have a frontend that relies on the JavaScript files that have been generated under .dfx/local, you should not expect to have any issues with dfx 0.8.0.

If you have an existing project that depends on dfx-generated frontend files, you may need to make some adjustments when upgrading to 0.8.0. Depending on your situation you may want to choose to set up environment variables or to make a minimum set of changes. We will document both cases here.

Environment variables

With webpack, we are providing environment variables by using an EnvironmentPlugin. At the top of webpack.config.js, we read from the root canister_ids.json and the one inside .dfx/local to map the canister IDs into environment variables, and then replace the process.env values in the code during development or at build time.

// webpack.config.js
let localCanisters, prodCanisters, canisters;

try {
localCanisters = require(path.resolve(".dfx", "local", "canister_ids.json"));
} catch (error) {
console.log("No local canister_ids.json found. Continuing production");

function initCanisterIds() {
try {
prodCanisters = require(path.resolve("canister_ids.json"));
} catch (error) {
console.log("No production canister_ids.json found. Continuing with local");

const network =
process.env.DFX_NETWORK ||
(process.env.NODE_ENV === "production" ? "ic" : "local");

canisters = network === "local" ? localCanisters : prodCanisters;

for (const canister in canisters) {
process.env[canister.toUpperCase() + "_CANISTER_ID"] =

With your bundler, whether it is Webpack or another bundler of your choice, you will need to account for the following:

  1. Identifying canister ids. The output no longer hardcodes the canister ids into JavaScript, so you will need to provide that code using your own strategy. Other bundlers that allow for custom scripting should be able to re-use the webpack config logic.

  2. Determining NODE_ENV. During development, the app should call agent.fetchRootKey(), but it should not fetch the root key in production.

  3. Copying the codegen, as we do in the dfx new template, is optional. You still have access to the .did.js and .did.d.ts files in .dfx, so you can choose to ignore the new index.js format if it is inconvenient, and continue providing your own Actor.createActor pattern as before.

  4. Return types - if you do not want to use the dfx-provided files, consider using the JSDoc comments that we have come up with. If the code knows that your actor has a type of ActorSubclass<_SERVICE>, for your particular service, the development process is significantly enhanced in compatible editors.

Minimal Update

If you are looking to minimally modify your project, here is all you need to do, assuming you are starting from the 0.7.2 starter:

You can continue using a query parameter in your URL, you can access it via

// src/example_assets/src/index.js
import { idlFactory as example_idl } from 'dfx-generated/example/example.did.js';
import canisterIds from '../../../.dfx/local/canister_ids.json'

const example_id = new URLSearchParams("exampleId") || canisterIds.example.local;

const agent = new HttpAgent();
const example = Actor.createActor(example_idl, { agent, canisterId: example_id });

And you can modify the aliases reducer to point to the path, rather than hardcoding the old <canister-name>.js file

// webpack.config.js

// Old
["dfx-generated/" + name]: path.join(outputRoot, name + ".js"),
// New
["dfx-generated/" + name]: path.join(outputRoot),

Then, you can dfx deploy like normal and visit your working site with http://localhost:8000/?canisterId=ryjl3-tyaaa-aaaaa-aaaba-cai&exampleId=rrkah-fqaaa-aaaaa-aaaaq-cai.


The 0.7.7 release includes updates and fixes that are primarily internal to improve existing features and functions rather than user-visible.

The most significant changes in this release include the following:

  • Support for the latest version of the Internet Computer specification and replica.

  • Updating to latest versions of Motoko, Candid, and agent-rs

  • Changes to dfx new project template and JavaScript codegen


The 0.7.2 release includes updates and fixes that are primarily internal to improve existing features and functions rather than user-visible.

The most significant changes in this release include the following:

  • Support for the latest version of the Internet Computer specification and replica.

  • The availability of new application subnets enable you to now deploy projects on the Internet Computer.

  • The default cycle balance for new cycles wallet canisters is now set to 3T (three trillion) cycles on application subnets and 4T (four trillion) on verified application subnets.


The 0.7.1 release includes new features and fixes to DFX commands, Motoko, the Motoko base library, and Candid.

New features and capabilities

The most significant new features and capabilities include the following updates for DFX commands:

  • An update to the dfx canister sign command enables you to sign request_status messages for update calls.

    If you are using dfx canister sign to call a method that generates an update message, the command also signs a corresponding request_status message and appends it to the message.json file as signed_request_status. After you send the message using the dfx canister send command, you can check the request_status of the call by running the following command:

    dfx canister send message.json --status

    This change is particularly useful if you are using the dfx canister sign and dfx canister send commands to call the ledger or governance canister to make a transaction or stake tokens as a two-step process.

  • There are new deposit_cycles and uninstall_code management canister methods that are also exposed as dfx canister subcommands.

    The two new commands are dfx canister deposit-cycles and dfx canister uninstall-code. For example, you can now send cycles from your cycles wallet to a specific canister by running a command similar to the following:

    dfx canister deposit-cycles 125000000000 hello_world

    You can uninstall code for a deployed WASM module by running a command similar to the following:

    dfx canister uninstall-code hello_world
  • A new --no-artificial-delay option enables you to reduce the time it takes for the local Internet Computer to start.

    This change adds the --no-artificial-delay flag to dfx start and dfx replica commands. By default, the local Internet Computer replica that is installed with the SDK has an artificial consensus delay to simulate the delay users might see in a networked environment. With this new flag, you can skip the built-in delay when you start the local Internet Computer by running either the dfx start --no-artificial-delay or dfx replica --no-artificial-delay command.

    For example, you can start the local Internet Computer without a delay by running the following command:

    dfx start -no-artificial-delay

    If you use this option, however, you might an increase in the CPU used by the local Internet Computer replica.

Breaking change

The SDK version 0.7.1 introduces a change to the default principal used when you run dfx canister call commands. Depending on the version of the SDK that you were previously using, this change might require changes to your program code or to the way you call methods in deployed canisters.

  • The cycles wallet canister identifier is not longer used as the message caller by default.

    In some previous versions of the SDK, the dfx canister call command would use the cycles wallet canister identifier as the message caller to perform queries and update calls by default.

    The --no-wallet command-line option was introduced to allow you to bypass the cycles wallet canister identifier and perform query and update calls using the currently-selected identity.

    However, using the cycles wallet canister identifier to execute dfx canister call commands resulted in each call being treated as an inter-canister call and the calls would take longer than necessary to resolve.

    With this release, dfx canister call commands no longer use the cycles wallet canister identifier to execute query and update calls by default. If you want to execute a query or update call using the cycles wallet, you can run a command similar to the following:

    dfx canister --wallet=cycles-wallet-id call canister method

Issues fixed in this release

This section covers any reported issues that have been fixed in this release.

  • Allow consistent use of canisters names or identifiers in dfx canister commands.

    Previously, dfx canister commands were inconsistent about whether you could specify a canister using a canister name or a canister identifier. With this change, all dfx canister commands now accept either a canister name as specified in the local dfx.json configuration file or a valid canister identifier as listed in the canister_ids.json file.


The 0.7.0 release primarily consists of changes to support new features that are not yet complete, including fixes and updates to DFX commands, Motoko, the Motoko base library, and Candid.

The most significant new features and capabilities are updates to the following:

New features and capabilities


  • Addition of ledger subcommands

    dfx now supports a dedicated dfx ledger subcommand. This allows you to interact with the ledger canister installed on the Internet Computer. Example commands include dfx ledger account-id which prints the Account Identifier associated with your selected identity, dfx ledger transfer which allows you to transfer ICP from your ledger account to another, and dfx ledger create-canister which allows you to create a canister from ICP. For more information on dfx ledger subcommands, see dfx ledger.

  • Addition of wallet subcommands

    dfx now supports a dedicated dfx wallet subcommand. This allows you to interact with the cycles wallet associated with your selected identity.

    The following are just some of the available commands:

    • dfx wallet balance returns the selected identity’s cycles wallet balance.

    • dfx wallet list-addresses displays the assigned controllers & custodians of the cycles wallet.

      You can use dfx wallet send <destination> <amount> to send cycles to another wallet.

      For more information on dfx wallet see dfx wallet.

  • Add an output type to the request-status subcommand.

    This change allows you to specify the format for the return result for dfx canister request-status. Formatting options include idl, raw, and pp.

  • The default network for projects is now ic.

    The default network is now the mainnet ic unless otherwise specified. Additionally, --network ic now points to the mainnet Internet Computer (Sodium has been deprecated.)

  • Automatic creation of a candid UI canister

    A dedicated candid UI canister is installed on a local network when using dfx canister install or dfx deploy.

  • Compress some content types

    You can now store gzip content encodings of assets with media types if the encoding is smaller than the source contents. Supported file types are text/*, */javascript, and */html.

  • Add the encoding size when listing assets

    Now when assets are listed, a new length field returns the size of encodings.

  • Add new command dfx canister info

    This allows you to retrieve certified canister information. Access to this information is limited to the controller of the canister and the SHA256 hash of its WASM module. If there is no WASM module installed, the hash will be None.

  • New method deletes asset canister assets that no longer exist in a project—breaking change

    The keys() method is no longer supported. Use the list() method to delete missing project assets. For example:

    assert_command dfx canister call --query e2e_project_assets get '(record{key="/will-delete-this.txt";accept_encodings=vec{"identity"}})'
    assert_command dfx canister call --query e2e_project_assets list '(record{})'
    assert_match '"/will-delete-this.txt"'
  • Run an emulator instead of the replica

    To run a dfx project using an emulator instead of the replica, you can now run dfx start --emulator.

  • Rely on to get the version of agent-js to install

    This decouples the version of dfx from the release version of agent-js. Additionally, it allows for debug builds to install properly (as dfx has a non-release version).

  • You can now install the DFINITY Canister SDK on for M1 Macs running Darwin.

  • Allow upload of assets of any size to the asset canister.

    The following asset canister call methods are added: create_batch() create_chunk() commit_batch() get() ** get_chunk()

    + Reworks the asset installer in dfx to use these methods. It can therefore upload assets that exceed the message ingress size.

  • Add --no-wallet flag and --wallet option

    --no-wallet allows users to bypass specifying a wallet ID.

    --wallet allows users to specify a particular wallet to use for calls.

  • Implement the HTTP request proposal in dfx bootstrap webserver

    Adds support for http requests in the base storage canister (with a default to /index.html).

This does not support encodings other than identity, and doesn’t return any headers.

This also upgrades tokio and reqwest in order to work correctly. There are some performance issues to note (this is slower than the ICx-http-server).


  • Reformat to style guidelines.

  • Add type bindings

    Add Nat.Nat, Nat8.Nat8, etc. to libraries for primitive types.

Issues fixed in this release

This section covers any reported issues that have been fixed in this release.


  • Deleting a canister on a network removes entries for other networks

    This change fixes a bug where deleting a canister on a network removed all other entries for the canister in the canister_ids.json file.

  • Error message: already in use (os error 48) when issuing dfx start.

    This fixes an error which occurred when starting a replica soon after stopping it.

  • The dfx new command should not require node

    This fixes the inability to use the dfx new command to create projects on machines that do not have node.js installed.

  • Missing webpack.config plugin

    This adds the missing ProvidePlugin to webpack.config for new projects.

  • Allow new projects assets to contain non-utf8 files

    Previously assets were forced to be valid UTF-8 strings. After this change if a string cannot be converted, in-place variable replacements are ignored.


  • No longer confused by distinct, but eponymous, type definitions.

  • Numbers of eponymous types and specializations from 1 (not 2)

  • Avoids long chains of type equalities by normalizing before translation


The 0.6.26 release primarily consists of changes to support new features that are not yet complete, including fixes and updates to DFX commands, Motoko, the Motoko base library, and Candid.

New features and capabilities

The most significant new feature included in this release is the publication of the Internet Computer Interface Specification.

The Internet Computer Interface Specification details many technical properties that describe the lower-level interfaces for interacting with the Internet Computer. For example, the Internet Computer Interface Specification describes the HTTPS endpoints that are exposed to handle incoming requests and how low-level bindings enable canisters to interact with system components.

If you use existing tools—like the DFINITY Canister SDK or Canister Development Kit for Rust—to work with canisters, these tools interact with the lower-level interfaces described in the Internet Computer Interface Specification on your behalf. If you want to create your own tooling for working with canisters, however, the Internet Computer Interface Specification includes the technical details you need to understand how the Internet Computer external interfaces work.

If you are interested in expanding the Internet Computer ecosystem, you’ll also find information in the Internet Computer Interface Specification to help you in developing the following types of projects:

  • Building frontend agents for user-facing interaction in any programming language, including popular languages such as Python, Golang, or C.

  • Building backend Canister Development Kits (CDKs) in any language that can compile down to WebAssembly bytecode.

  • Building local development tools such as command line interfaces or Internet Computer emulators and debuggers.

  • Implementing features and enhancements to improve the developer experience for deploying and managing canisters running remotely on the network.

Issues fixed in this release

This section covers any reported issues that have been fixed in this release.

This release fixes an issue with memory allocation in the default cycles wallet that caused an error after creating and deploying canisters. If you encountered this issue, you might have seen an error message similar to the following:

The Replica returned an error: code 5, message: "Canister 6dtaa-vaaaa-aaaab-aaipa-cai exceeded its allowed memory allocation"

This release updates the default cycles wallet to provide better handling of unused memory and how memory is allocated when creating and deploying canisters.

Known issues and limitations

This section covers any known issues or limitations that might affect how you work with the SDK in specific environments or scenarios.

Only the default wallet canister principal can perform canister management tasks

The introduction of the cycles wallet canister changes the default principal used to perform key canister management tasks, such as registering a new canister identifier and deploying a new canister on the Internet Computer. This change introduces some inconsistencies in the identity used to perform certain tasks and can result in potential access control issues.

You should note that none of the tutorials have been updated to reflect this specific change in behavior yet and the current version of the Add access control with identities tutorial is known to be invalid for this release. If you want to experiment with access control using the Add access control with identities tutorial, you should install the SDK version 0.6.23 (or older).

Incompatibility when using the JavaScript agent directly in a project

If you access the @dfinity/agent JavaScript agent directly in a project—that is, without going through the bootstrap server—you will not be able to import the bls certification scheme with the agent-js release.

If your application uses the JavaScript agent directly, you should use the latest version of the agent.


The 0.6.25 release primarily consists of changes to support new features that are not yet complete, including fixes and updates to DFX commands, Motoko, the Motoko base library, and Candid.

New features and capabilities

The most significant new features and capabilities include the following updates:

  • This release introduces environment variables for specifying canister identifiers.

    You can now use the CANISTER_ID_{} and CANISTER_CANDID_PATH_{} environment variables to reference canister identifiers and the path to the canister Candid description (.did file) during the build process. These environment variables enable you to construct the JavaScript for frontend assets using the correct canister identifiers.

    The environment variables are intended to replace the import syntax for dependent canisters described in Entry and output configuration which is being deprecated and will be removed in a future release.

  • A new dfx identity import subcommand enables you to import a security certificate to create an identity.

    For example, if you use a hardware wallet or a key generation utility to generate a PEM file for authenticating your identity, you can now import that PEM file into dfx to create a new identity. After importing the PEM file, you can run the dfx identity use command to set that identity as your default context.

    For example, to import the my-external-id.pem and create an identity named alice, you would run the following command:

    dfx identity import alice my-external-id.pem

    After running this command, you would run the following command to begin using the new identity:

    dfx identity use alice

Issues fixed in this release

This section covers any reported issues that have been fixed in this release.

Known issues and limitations

This section covers any known issues or limitations that might affect how you work with the SDK in specific environments or scenarios.


The 0.6.24 release primarily consists of changes to support new features that are not yet complete, including fixes and updates to DFX commands, Motoko, the Motoko base library, and Candid.

New features and capabilities

The most significant new features and capabilities include updates in the following functional areas:


  • With this release, you must have a wallet canister with cycles to deploy or manage applications on the IC.

    For local development, +dfx+ automatically creates a wallet for you when you run +dfx canister create+ or +dfx deploy+ commands within each project.

    Wallets are also created automatically if you deploy to the IC using the +ic+ network alias before the network is upgraded to require a cycle balance.

    To deploy applications on the IC network:

    1. Download and install the SDK.

    2. Run the dfx identity get-principal command to create your default identity and principal:

      dfx identity get-principal

      Running the command displays output similar to the following:

      Creating the "default" identity.
      - generating new key at /Users/pubs/.config/dfx/identity/default/identity.pem
      Created the "default" identity.
    3. Run the +dfx identity set-wallet+ command to associate your wallet canister identifier with your default identity.

      dfx identity set-wallet <wallet-canister-identifier>
    4. Open the wallet application in a web browser by navigating to the canister with a URL similar to the following:

  • A new command-line option enables you to specify the number of initial cycles to transfer to a newly-created canister.

    The +dfx canister create+ and +dfx deploy+ commands now support a new +--with-cycles <number-of-cycles>+ option. This option allows you to specify the initial cycle balance of a canister created by your wallet.

    You can use this option when running the IC network locally or connected to the current +ic+ network (Sodium) for testing purposes. However, because wallets and cycle balances are not currently used for canisters you create while connected to the current +ic+ network (Sodium), the +--with-cycles+ option does not affect any canister operations.

    For example, you might run the following +dfx canister create+ command to initialize +8000000000+ cycles for all of the canisters in a project:

    dfx canister create --with-cycles 8000000000 --all

    If using +dfx deploy+, you might run the following command to initialize +8000000000+ cycles for the +backend+ canister in a project:

    dfx deploy --with-cycles 8000000000 backend

You must have a wallet canister with a cycles balance on the network where you want to create or deploy additional canisters.

  • You can now use the new +dfx toolchain+ command to manage the version of the +dfx+ command-line interface you are using for your projects.

    The +dfx toolchain+ command enables you to install, uninstall, and set the default version of dfx that you want to use. You can specify the version by the complete version number, the major and minor version number, or a tag name. For example:

    dfx toolchain install 0.6.24 # complete version
    dfx toolchain install 0.6 # major minor version
    dfx toolchain install latest # tag name
  • A new +deploy-wallet+ subcommand enables you to specify the canister identifier for your cycles wallet WebAssembly module (WASM).

    For example, if you have an account with a third party exchange provider and receive a wallet canister identifier, you can run a command similar to the following to deploy the wallet and uses its cycles for development:

    dfx identity deploy-wallet <canister-identifier>

The +deploy-wallet+ feature is intended for a future use case. The command is only applicable if you received the wallet canister identifier as part of a transfer operation that converted ICP tokens to cycles. In addition, the +deploy-wallet+ subcommand is not intended for use with the current version of IC running locally or on the remote network.


  • New Candid documentation for developers provides type mapping information for Rust and JavaScript.

  • Candid now supports additional native Rust types and Typescript.

  • For additional information, see the Candid changelog.


  • The Motoko compiler (+moc+) now accepts the +-Werror+ flag to turn warnings into errors.

  • The language server now returns documentation comments alongside completions and hover notifications.

  • Motoko supports wrapping arithmetic and bit-wise operations on NatN and IntN.

    The conventional arithmetic operators on NatN and IntN trap on overflow. If wrap-around semantics is desired, the operators +%, -%, *% and **% can be used. The corresponding assignment operators (+%= etc.) are also available.

    Likewise, the bit fiddling operators (&, |, ^, <<, >>, <<>,<>> etc.) are now also available on NatN and IntN. The right shift operator (>>) is an unsigned right shift on NatN and a signed right shift on IntN; the +>> operator is not available on these types.

    The motivation for this change is to eventually deprecate and remove the WordN types. Therefore, the wrapping arithmetic operations on WordN are deprecated and their use will print a warning. For information about replacing Word types, see Word types.

  • For values x of type Blob, an iterator over the elements of the blob x.vals() is introduced. It works like x.bytes(), but returns the elements as type Nat8.

  • The base library documentation tool +mo-doc+ now generates cross-references for types in signatures. With this enhancement, when you view a signature like fromIter : I.Iter<Nat> -> List.List<Nat>, you can click I.Iter or List.List to navigate to the appropriate definition.

  • Improvements to the type checker and compiler provide better handling for object literals.

Issues fixed in this release

This section covers any reported issues that have been fixed in this release.

Known issues and limitations

This section covers any known issues or limitations that might affect how you work with the SDK in specific environments or scenarios.


The 0.6.23 release consists of changes to support new features and enhancements that are not yet complete.

New features and capabilities

The most significant new feature enables you to use a locally-installed @dfinity/bootstrap server.

For information about updates to Candid, see the Candid changelog.


The 0.6.22 release consists of changes to support new features that are not yet complete, including fixes and updates to DFX commands, Motoko, the Motoko base library, and Candid.

New features and capabilities

The most significant new features and capabilities include updates in the following functional areas:


  • The dfx canister call command can now pass a randomly-generated value to a canister method when an argument is required but not provided.

  • The dfx canister call command can take canister identifiers for local canisters even if the canister is installed on a remote network.

  • The dfx replica command has been fixed so that it does not attempt to write the replica pid to a nonexistent directory.

  • The default webpack.config.js file used when you create new projects has been modified to comment out the configuration to enable TypeScript.

    Previously, the webpack.config.js file configured ts-loader to process files with the .js file extension, which could lead to errors. This configuration is now disabled by default and the commented-out configuration only processes .ts, .tsx, and .jsx files through ts-loader.

Sample applications

  • There have been updates, improvements, and new sample applications added to the examples repository.

    All of Motoko sample apps in the examples repository have been updated to work with the latest release of the SDK.

    There are also new sample apps to illustrate using arrays (Quicksort) and building create/read/update/delete (CRUD) operations for a web application Superheroes.

  • The LinkedUp sample application has been updated to work with the latest release of Motoko and the SDK.



  • The Motoko compiler now reports errors and warnings with an additional error code.

    You can use the error code to look up a more detailed description for a given error by passing the --explain flag with a code to the compiler.

    Note that detailed descriptions are not yet available for most error codes and will be added incrementally in upcoming releases.


The 0.6.21 release primarily consists of changes to support new features that are not yet complete, including fixes and updates to DFX commands, Motoko, the Motoko base library, and Candid.

New features and capabilities

The most significant new features and capabilities include updates in the following functional areas:


  • Two new subcommands—get-wallet and set-wallet—have been added to the dfx identity command to support working with wallet canisters.

    In a future release, you will be able to use these commands locally for testing purposes. However, the commands are not currently supported on any version of the Internet Computer network available for you to run locally or on the public Internet Computer network.



  • The Motoko compiler now reports errors and warnings with an additional error code.

    You can use the error code to look up a more detailed description for a given error by passing the --explain flag with a code to the compiler.

    Note that detailed descriptions are not yet available for most error codes and will be added incrementally in upcoming releases.

Issues fixed in this release

This section covers any reported issues that have been fixed in this release.

Known issues and limitations

This section covers any known issues or limitations that might affect how you work with the SDK in specific environments or scenarios.


The 0.6.20 release has both user-facing and internal enhancements, including fixes and updates to Motoko, the Motoko base library, and Candid.

New features and capabilities

The most significant new features and capabilities include updates in the following functional areas:


  • The dfx commands that support the --network option have been updated to support URLs when specifying the network value.

    Previously, the --network option required you to specify a network name that matched a network aliases configured in the project’s dfx.json file.


The Candid web interface has been updated to provide easier navigation and a better user experience. The updates to the Candid web interface include the following new features and improvements:

  • A new Console drawer provides quick access to method output and a list of all available methods as links for fast navigation.

  • Canister methods and their related form elements are more clearly separated and annotated.

  • Method output is selectable and easier to toggle between text, UI, and JSON formats.

  • The layout is now responsive to provide an optimized display when viewing service using mobile devices or other media.


  • The Motoko base documentation examples are now executable in the browser.

  • The Motoko compiler supports specifying command-line arguments using --args <file> and --args0 <file>.

    The new options enable the compiler to read newline and NUL terminated arguments from a specified file name.

Issues fixed in this release

This section covers any reported issues that have been fixed in this release.

Known issues and limitations

This section covers any known issues or limitations that might affect how you work with the SDK in specific environments or scenarios.